I Tests document that most autistic children are mercury toxic.

 

An IRB approved study assessing urinary levels of porphyrins found an apparent dose-response effect between autism severity and increased urinary coproporphyrins (91). For patients with non-chelated autism (83% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean) and for children with non-chelated Autism Spectrum Disorders (58% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), but for patients with non-chelated pervasive developmental delay-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger's disorder (46% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean). Each group of ASDshad significantly increased median coproporphyrin levels versus controls. A significant increase (1.7-fold) in median coproporphyrin levels was observed among non-chelated ASD patients versus chelated ASD patients.  Mercury toxicity was found to be associated with elevations in urinary coproporphyrin (cP), pentacarboxyporphyrin (5cxP), and precoproporphyrin (prcP) (also known as keto-isocoproporphyrin) levels. Two cohorts of autistic patients in the United States and France each had urine porphyrin levels associated with mercury toxicity.

 

Autistics Clinically Proven Mercury Poisoned; Porphyrin patterns indicative of clinical mercury toxicity, while neurotypical children and their neurotypical sibling controls did not.
Press Release 
Contact:sCoMeD Director ; CoMeD Sci. Advisor 
WASHINGTON, DC – Recent peer-reviewed scientific/medical studies by Nataf et al. (2006) and by Geier and Geier (2006) leave little doubt that many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are indeed mercury poisoned. These studies utilized urinary porphyrin profile analysis (UPPA) to assess body-burden and physiological effects of mercury in autistics. Today, any parent, physician, or healthcare provider can easily confirm whether a non-chelated autistic is mercury poisoned by having UPPA testing run at Laboratory Corporation of America(LabCorp) (CLIA-certified, Test#120980) or Laboratoire Philippe Auguste (ISO-certified, Urine Porphyrin Profile).

 

 

  Altered porphyrins by mercury exposure is another mechanism that mercury has been shown to cause problems and symptoms seen in autism (7). Mercury has been well documented to cause neurological, mood and behavioral problems for children and others(8,9, etc.) Mercury also has additive and synergistic effects with other toxic metals and toxins so lower exposure levels of each can produce significant damage (9). Susceptibility factors also reduce some people’s ability to detoxify mercury and other toxins, making some more affected by toxic exposures.

 (7) A prospective study of mercury toxicity biomarkers in autistic spectrum disorders.   Geier DA, Geier MR.  J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Oct;70(20):1723-30; & Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum; & Khaled EM, Mequid NA, et al; Metab Brain Dis. 2016 Dec;31(6):1419-1426;

(8) Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence? Mutter J, Naumann J, et al; Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Oct;26(5):439-46; & Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis. Mortazavi G, Haghani M, et al; J Biomed Phys Eng. 2016 Mar 1;6(1):41-6.

(9) Mercury and autism, www.myflcv.com/hgopiod.html & www.myflcv.com/kidshg.html; & http://myflcv.com/autismhg.html;

B. Windham, Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Toxic Metals, (over 150 medical study references) www.flcv.com/tmlbn.html; & (b)  Prenatal and neonatal effects of mercury on infants, http://www.myflcv.com/fetaln.html

The Institute for Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.    x

Autism was recently associated with a urinary porphyrin pattern indicative of mercury toxicity in a large cohort of French children. The IRB of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses approved the present study. A total of 37 consecutive American patients (> or = 7 years-old) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-DSM IV), born from 1983-1998, that presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient genetic evaluations were prospectively examined for urinary prophryin levels (LabCorp, Inc.) from June 2005-June 2006. Imaging and laboratory testing were conducted on each patient to rule-out other causal factors for their ASDs. As controls, age-, sex-, and race-matched neurotypical ASD siblings were examined. An apparent dose-response effect was observed between autism severity and increased urinary coproporphyrins. Patients with non-chelatedautism (2.25-fold, 83% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean) and non-chelated ASDs (2-fold, 58% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), but not patients with non-chelated pervasive developmental delay-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) or Asperger'sdisorder (1.4-fold, 46% had levels > 2 SD above the control mean), had significantly increased median coproporphyrin levels versus controls. A significant increase (1.7-fold) in median coproporphyrin levels was observed among non-chelated ASD patients versus chelated ASD patients. Porphyrins should be routinely clinically measured in ASDs, and potential ASD treatments should consider monitoring porphyrin levels. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the potential role for mercury exposure in some ASDs.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Porphyrins are derivatives formed in the heme synthesis pathway and porphyrins afford a measure of xenobiotic exposure. The steps in the heme pathway most vulnerable to heavy metal inhibition are uroporphyrin decarboxylase (UROD) and coproporphyrinogen oxidase(CPOX) reactions. Mercury toxicity was associated with elevations in urinary coproporphyrin (cP), pentacarboxyporphyrin(5cxP), and precoproporphyrin (prcP(also known as keto-isocoproporphyrin) levels. Two cohorts of autistic patients in the United States and France had urine porphyrin levels associated with mercury toxicity. A prospective study of urinary porphyrin testing at LabCorp (United States) and the Laboratoire Philippe Auguste (France) involving 71 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, neurotypical sibling controls, and general population controls was undertaken. ASD patients had significant elevations in urinary levels of cP, 5cxP, and prcP relative to controls, and > 50% of ASD patients had urinary cP levels more than 2 standard deviations above the mean values for neurotypical sibling controls. Significant reductions in urinary 5cxP and cP levels were observed in ASD patients following chelation. A significant correlation was found between urinary porphyrins measured at LabCorp and those measured at the Laboratoire Philippe Auguste on individual ASD patients. The established developmental neurotoxicity attributed to mercury and biochemical/genomic evidence for mercury susceptibility/toxicity in ASDs indicates a causal role for mercury. Urinary porphyrin testing is clinically available, relatively inexpensive, and noninvasive. Porphyrins need to be routinely measured in ASDs to establish if mercury toxicity is a causative factor and to evaluate the effectiveness of chelation therapy.

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II.    Based on following up other studies showing higher than normal androgen levels in most autistic patients, this study found increased androgen levels in virtually all of a group of autistics(10). Morning blood samples collected following an overnight fast, compared to the pertinent reference means, showed significantly increased relative mean levels for: serum testosterone (158%), serum free testosterone (214%), percent free testosterone (121%), DHEA (192%), and androstenedione (173%). A medical hypothesis has suggested that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from interactions between the methionine cycle-transsulfuration and androgen pathways following exposure to mercury.  A study following treatment including chelation using DMSA and Lupron brought significant improvement in the majority of patients(11). Significant decreases in blood androgens and increases in urinary heavy metal concentrations were observed during the treatment.

 

(10) A Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Methionine Cycle-Transsulfuration and Androgen Pathway Markers in Children with Autistic Disorders, David Geier, Hormone Research 66(4):182-8 · February 2006

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is 1 in 300 children in the US. ASDs are characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movement patterns, and sensory dysfunction. Pre-pubertal age children with ASDs were assessed for metabolites in the methionine cycle-transsulfuration and androgen pathways, and for present physical development/behaviors indicative of hyperandrogenicity. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, US Department of Health and Human Services IRB number: IRB00005375) approved the present study. Sixteen consecutive pre-pubertal age children (</=11 years old; mean +/- SD: 5.9 +/- 2.1 years old) with previously diagnosed ASDs that presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient care were evaluated. Significantly (p < 0.01) increased levels of serum/plasma dehydroepiandrosterone and serum total testosterone relative to the age- and sex-specific normal laboratory reference ranges were observed. Conversely, serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly (p < 0.01) decreased. Plasma-reduced glutathione (p < 0.01), plasma cysteine (p < 0.01), plasma methionine (p < 0.01), serum cystathionine (p < 0.05), and serum homocysteine (p < 0.01) were all significantly decreased. The results suggest a possible cyclical interaction between the methionine cycle-transsulfuration and androgen pathways in some children with ASDs.

(11) A clinical trial of combined anti-androgen and anti-heavy metal therapy in autistic disorders.

Geier DAGeier MR. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec;27(6):833-8

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.   (96a)

BACKGROUND: A medical hypothesis has suggested that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from interactions between the methionine cycle-transsulfuration and androgen pathways following exposure to mercury. METHODS: The IRB of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses approved the present study. A novel treatment was utilized combining LUPRON (leuprolide acetate, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) and CHEMET (meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid--DMSA, McNeil Consumer Products Company) on 11 consecutive children with ASDs. RESULTS: A significant (p<0.01) overall improvement from the 70-79th percentile of severity (median baseline score=87) at baseline to the 40-49th percentile of severity (median end of study period score=63) at the end of the study was observed for patients treated for a median of approximately 4 monthsSignificant improvements in sociability, cognitive awareness, behavior, and clinical symptoms/behaviors of hyperandrogenemia were also observedSignificant decreases in blood androgens and increases in urinary heavy metal concentrations were observed. Minimal drug adverse effects were found. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first clinical evidence for the benefit that combined anti-androgen and anti-heavy metal therapy may have on some children with ASDs. Additional studies should examine androgen and heavy metal mechanisms of action in ASDs, and future ASD treatment protocols should consider androgens and heavy metals.

 

A prospective assessment of androgen levels in patients with autistic spectrum disorders: biochemical underpinnings and suggested therapies.          (11b)

Geier DAGeier MR.  Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Oct;28(5):565-73

Vice-President of the Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movement patterns, and sensory dysfunction characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Seventy consecutive patients with an ASD diagnosis (DSM-IV criteria, >/= 6 years-old) who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient genetic/developmental evaluations from 2005-2007 were examined. Patients were evaluated using CLIA-approved Laboratory Cooperation of America (LabCorp) testing for: serum testosterone, serum free testosterone, % free testosterone, serum/plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstendione, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Morning blood samples collected following an overnight fast, compared to the pertinent reference means, showed significantly increased relative mean levels for: serum testosterone (158%), serum free testosterone (214%), percent free testosterone (121%), DHEA (192%), and androstenedione (173%). By contrast, compared to the pertinent reference mean, the relative mean level of FSH(51%) was significantly decreased. Additionally, at least one of the androgen attributes examined exceeded its recognized laboratory age- and sex-specific reference range in 81.4% (57 of 70) of the patients examined. With respect to their age- and sex-specific reference ranges, females had significantly higher overall mean relative testosterone and relative free testosterone levels than males. Increased androgens in patients diagnosed with ASDs may involve cyclical interactions between the androgen and the transsulfuration pathways, particularly following mercury exposure. A review of therapies that have significantly improved clinical outcomes in ASD patients indicates they share commonality in helping lower androgens. Thus, androgens should be routinely clinically measured in patients with an ASDdiagnosis and appropriate androgen-lowering therapies considered for those who have significantly elevated levels.

 

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III. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.  Geier DA, Geier MR.  Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 May 15;70(10):837-51

There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed  and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations in a group of autism patients The group was found to excrete significant amounts of mercury after chelation challenge.

A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.  Geier DA, Geier MR.  Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 May 15;70(10):837-51

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDsobserved and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

IV. Rhogam

This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal mercury exposure from thimerosal containing Rho(D)-immune globulins and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A group of 53 autistic patients were compared to a group of 926 non-autistic children. Children with ASDswere significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.35, p < 0.01) to have Rh-negative mothers than controls.

A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders.  Geier DA, Geier MR.,  J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 May;20(5):385-90

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal mercury exposure from thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight)-containing Rho(D)-immune globulins (TCRs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHODS: The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses approved the present study. A total of 53 consecutive non-Jewish Caucasian patients with ASDs (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth ed. - DSM IV) born between 1987 and 2001 who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for outpatient genetic/developmental evaluations were prospectively collected from June 1, 2005 through March 31, 2006. Imaging and laboratory testing were conducted on each patient to rule out other causal factors for their ASDs. As race-matched controls, the frequency of Rh negativity was determined from 926 non-Jewish Caucasian pregnant women who had presented for outpatient prenatal genetics care to the Genetic Centers of America between 1980 and 1989. RESULTS: Children with ASDs (28.30%) were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.52, p < 0.01) to have Rh-negative mothers than controls (14.36%). Each ASD patient's mother was determined to have been administered a TCR during her pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The results provide insights into the potential role prenatal mercury exposure may play in some children with ASDs.

 

A review of Thimerosal (Merthiolate) and its ethylmercury breakdown product: specific historical considerations regarding safety and effectiveness.  Geier DA, Sykes LK, Geier MR.  J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2007 Dec;10(8):575-96.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Thimerosal (Merthiolate) is an ethylmercury-containing pharmaceutical compound that is 49.55% mercury and that was developed in 1927. Thimerosal has been marketed as an antimicrobial agent in a range of products, including topical antiseptic solutions and antiseptic ointments for treating cuts, nasal sprays, eye solutions, vaginal spermicides, diaper rash treatments, and perhaps most importantly as a preservative in vaccines and other injectable biological products, including Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations, despite evidence, dating to the early 1930s, indicating Thimerosal to be potentially hazardous to humans and ineffective as an antimicrobial agent. Despite this, Thimerosal was not scrutinized as part of U.S. pharmaceutical products until the 1980s, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration finally recognized its demonstrated ineffectiveness and toxicity in topical pharmaceutical products, and began to eliminate it from these. Ironically, while Thimerosal was being eliminated from topicals, it was becoming more and more ubiquitous in the recommended immunization schedule for infants and pregnant women. Furthermore, Thimerosal continues to be administered, as part of mandated immunizations and other pharmaceutical products, in the United States and globally. The ubiquitous and largely unchecked place of Thimerosal in pharmaceuticals, therefore, represents a medical crisis.

The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion

Janet K.KernabcDavid A.GeieracLisa K.SykescBoyd E.HaleydMark R.Geierac; Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology

Volume 37, September 2016, Pages 8-24

The brain pathology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) indicates marked and ongoing inflammatory reactivity with concomitant neuronal damage. These findings are suggestive of neuronal insult as a result of external factors, rather than some type of developmental mishap. Various xenobiotics have been suggested as possible causes of this pathology. In a recent review, the top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds. This current review, however, will focus specifically on mercury exposure and ASD by conducting a comprehensive literature search of original studies in humans that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD, categorizing, summarizing, and discussing the published research that addresses this topic. This review found 91 studies that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD from 1999 to February 2016. Of these studies, the vast majority (74%) suggest that mercury is a risk factor for ASD, revealing both direct and indirect effects. The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory in ASD.

Neurodevelopmental disorders, maternal Rh-negativity, and Rho(D) immune globulins: a multi-center assessment.

Geier DA, et al. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many formulations of Thimerosal (49.55% mercury by weight)-containing Rho(D) immune globulins (TCRs) were routinely administered to Rh-negative mothers in the US prior to 2002.

OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized: (1) if prenatal Rho(D)-immune globulin preparation exposure was a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) then more children with NDs would have Rh-negative mothers compared to controls; and (2) if Thimerosal in the Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations was the ingredient associated with NDs, following the removal of Thimerosal from all manufactured Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations from 2002 in the US the frequency of maternal Rh-negativity among children with NDs should be similar to control populations.

METHODS: Maternal Rh-negativity was assessed at two sites (Clinic A-Lynchburg, VA; Clinic B-Rockville and Baltimore, MD) among 298 Caucasian children with NDs and known Rh-status. As controls, maternal Rh-negativity frequency was determined from 124 Caucasian children (born 1987-2001) without NDs at Clinic A, and the Rh-negativity frequency was determined from 1,021 Caucasian pregnant mothers that presented for prenatal genetic care at Clinic B (1980-1989). Additionally, 22 Caucasian patients with NDs born from 2002 onwards (Clinics A and B) were assessed for maternal Rh-negativity.

RESULTS: There were significant and comparable increases in maternal Rh-negativity among children with NDs (Clinic: A=24.2%), autism spectrum disorders (Clinic: A=28.3%, B=25.3%), and attention-deficit-disorder/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (Clinic: A=26.3%) observed at both clinics in comparison to both control groups (Clinic: A=12.1%, B=13.9%) employed. Children with NDs born post-2001 had a maternal Rh-negativity frequency (13.6%) similar to controls.

CONCLUSION: This study associates TCR exposure with some NDs in children.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18404135/

 

 

#Rhogam #Autism #ADD #Thimerosal #Mercury #Neurodevelopmental
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

 

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V. Neurological disorders caused by TC Vax exposures

Two groups of children were compared using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for neurodevelopment disorders (NDs), one receiving thimerosal containing vaccines (TCV) and the other similar non-thimerosal containing vaccines.  Significantly increased risks of autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, thinking abnormalities, ataxia, and NDs were associated with TCV exposure()

 A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States.  Geier DA, Geier MR. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Aug;27(4):401-13

The Institute for Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA. mgeier@comcast.net

BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing compound (49.6% mercury by weight) used as at the preservative level in vaccines (0.005% to 0.01%). METHODS: Statistical modeling in a meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for neurodevelopment disorders (NDs) reported following Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis(DTP) vaccines  in comparison to Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (DTPH) vaccines administered: 1994-1997 and following Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP), in comparison to Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines (administered: 1997-2000), was undertaken. RESULTS: Significantly increased adjusted (sex, age, vaccine type, vaccine manufacturer) risks of autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, thinking abnormalities, ataxia, and NDs in general, with minimal systematic error or confounding, were associated with TCV exposure.CONCLUSION: It is clear from the results of the present epidemiological study and other recently published data associating mercury exposure with childhood NDs, additional ND research should be undertaken in the context of evaluating mercury-associated exposures, especially from Thimerosal-containing vaccines.

 In the United States during the 1990s, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines (maximally, 50 mug mercury per joint administration) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPH) vaccines (25 mug mercury per administration) were given to children in the same childhood vaccination schedule at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 mo, so that children receiving DTP and Hibvaccines may have maximally received an additional 100 mug more mercury exposure from TCVs than children administered DTPH vaccines. A case-control epidemiological study of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (online public access version; updated 31 August 2004) following administration of DTP vaccines in comparison DTPH vaccines manufactured by Lederle Laboratories from 1994 through 1998 was undertaken. Significantly increased odds ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS were found following DTP vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccines

An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States.  Geier DA, Geier MR. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006 Aug;69(15):1481-95.

An evaluation of the effects of thimerosal on neurodevelopmental disorders reported following DTP and Hib vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccine in the United States. 

Geier DAGeier MR. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006 Aug;69(15):1481-95

The Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905, USA. mgeier@comcast.net

Thimerosal is an ethylmercury (49.55% mercury by weight) preservative historically added to some vaccines. Toxicokinetic studies showed children in the United States received doses of mercury from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) in excess of safety guidelines. In the United States during the 1990s, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines (maximally, 50 mug mercury per joint administration) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPH) vaccines (25 mug mercury per administration) were given to children in the same childhood vaccination schedule at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 mo, so that children receiving DTP and Hib vaccines may have maximally received an additional 100 mug more mercury exposure from TCVs than children administered DTPH vaccines. A case-control epidemiological study of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) (online public access version; updated 31 August 2004) following administration of DTP vaccines in comparison DTPH vaccines manufactured by Lederle Laboratories (Pearl River, NY) from 1994 through 1998 was undertaken. Significantly increased odds ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS were found following DTP vaccines in comparison to DTPH vaccines with minimal bias or systematic error. Additional ND research should be undertaken in the context of evaluating mercury-associated exposures, especially since in 2005 the Institute of Medicine issued a report calling into question handling of vaccine safety data by the National Immunization Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

 

A two phased population-based epidemiological study was undertaken. Phase one evaluated reported NDs to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines administered from 1997 through 2001. Phase two evaluated the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for cumulative exposures to mercury from TCVs at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-months-of-age for infants born from 1992 through 1997 and the eventual risk of developing NDs. RESULTS: Phase one showed significantly increased risks for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Phase two showed significant associations between cumulative exposures to thimerosal and the following types of NDs: unspecified developmental delay, tics, attention deficit disorder (ADD), language delay, speech delay, and neurodevelopmental delays in general.

A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis. Geier DA, GeierMR.  Med Sci Monit. 2005 Apr;11(4):CR160-70. Epub 2005 Mar 24

A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis.

Geier DAGeier MR.  Med Sci Monit. 2005 Apr;11(4):CR160-70. Epub 2005 Mar 24.

MedCon, Inc., USA.

BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing preservative in vaccines. Toxicokinetic studies have shown children received doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) that were in excess of safety guidelines. Previously, an ecological study showing a significant association between TCVs and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) in the US was published in this journal. MATERIAL/METHODS: A two phased population-based epidemiological study was undertaken. Phase one evaluated reported NDs to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines administered from 1997 through 2001. Phase two evaluated the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for cumulative exposures to mercury from TCVs at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-months-of-age for infants born from 1992 through 1997 and the eventual risk of developing NDs. RESULTS: Phase one showed significantly increased risks for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Phase two showed significant associations between cumulative exposures to thimerosal and the following types of NDs: unspecified developmental delay, tics, attention deficit disorder (ADD), language delay, speech delay, and neurodevelopmental delays in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that exposure to mercury from TCVs administered in the US was a consistent significant risk factor for the development of NDs. It is clear from these data and other recent publications linking TCVs with NDs that additional ND research should be undertaken in the context of evaluating mercury-associated exposures and thimerosal-free vaccines should be made available.

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Relative to the control children, the children with autism

had significantly lower baseline plasma concentrations of methionine,

SAM, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, and total glutathione

and significantly higher concentrations of SAH, adenosine,

and oxidized glutathione. This metabolic profile is consistent with

impaired capacity for methylation (significantly lower ratio of SAM

to SAH) and increased oxidative stress (significantly lower redox

ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) in children with

autism. The intervention trial was effective in normalizing the metabolic imbalance in the autistic children.

 

Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism  S Jill James, Paul Cutler, StepanMelnyk, Stefanie Jernigan, Laurette Janak, David W Gaylor, and James A Neubrander.  Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1611–7.

 

Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism1,2  S Jill James, Paul Cutler, Stepan Melnyk, Stefanie Jernigan, Laurette Janak, David W Gaylor, and James A Neubrander.  Am J ClinNutr 2004;80:1611–7. 

 

http://www.icdrc.org/pdf/MetabolicbiomarkersinAutisticChildren.pdf

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that usually presents in early childhood and that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism.  

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites in the methionine transmethylation and transsulfuration pathways in children diagnosed with autism.

Design: Plasma concentrations of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, and oxidized and reduced glutathione were

measured in 20 children with autism and in 33 control children. On the basis of the abnormal metabolic profile, a targeted nutritional intervention trial with folinic acid, betaine, and methylcobalamin was initiated

in a subset of the autistic children.

Results: Relative to the control children, the children with autism had significantly lower baseline plasma concentrations of methionine, SAM, homocysteine, cystathionine, cysteine, and total glutathione

and significantly higher concentrations of SAH, adenosine, and oxidized glutathione. This metabolic profile is consistent with impaired capacity for methylation (significantly lower ratio ofSAMto SAH) and increased oxidative stress (significantly lower redox ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione) in children with

autism. The intervention trial was effective in normalizing the metabolic imbalance in the autistic children.

Conclusions: An increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and a decreased capacity for methylation may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of autism. AmJ Clin Nutr2004;  80:1611–7.

*************************************

(put in suscept and kidshg

Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent.  M Hornig, D Chian and W I LipkinMolecular Psychiatry (2004) 9, 833–845. 

These findings demonstrated genetic influences on susceptibility to thimerosal effects and that immune reactivity to thimerosal results in significant neurological effects when exposed. 

 

 

Molecular Psychiatry (2004) 9, 833–845. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001529 Published online 8 June 2004

Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent

M Hornig1, D Chian1 and W I Lipkin1,2

 

Abstract

The developing brain is uniquely susceptible to the neurotoxic hazard posed by mercurials. Host differences in maturation, metabolism, nutrition, sex, and autoimmunity influence outcomes. How population-based variability affects the safety of the ethylmercury-containing vaccine preservative, thimerosal, is unknown. Reported increases in the prevalence of autism, a highly heritable neuropsychiatric condition, are intensifying public focus on environmental exposures such as thimerosal. Immune profiles and family history in autism are frequently consistent with autoimmunity. We hypothesized that autoimmune propensity influences outcomes in mice following thimerosal challenges that mimic routine childhood immunizations. Autoimmune disease-sensitive SJL/J mice showed growth delay; reduced locomotion; exaggerated response to novelty; and densely packed, hyperchromic hippocampal neurons with altered glutamate receptors and transporters. Strains resistant to autoimmunity, C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ, were not susceptible. These findings implicate genetic influences and provide a model for investigating thimerosal-related neurotoxicity.

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Oxidative stress in autism, Abha Chauhan and Ved Chauhana

 , Pathophysiology,  Volume 13, Issue 3, August 2006, Pages 171-181                   x


Oxidative stress in autism, Abha Chauhanaand Ved Chauhana , Pathophysiology  Volume 13, Issue 3, August 2006, Pages 171-181 
Abstract

Autism is a severe developmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Oxidative stress in autism has been studied at the membrane level and also by measuring products of lipid peroxidation, detoxifying agents (such as glutathione), and antioxidants involved in the defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid peroxidation markers are elevated in autism, indicating that oxidative stress is increased in this disease. Levels of major antioxidant serum proteins, namely transferrin (iron-binding protein) and ceruloplasmin (copper-binding protein), are decreased in children with autism. There is a positive correlation between reduced levels of these proteins and loss of previously acquired language skills in children with autism. The alterations in ceruloplasmin and transferrin levels may lead to abnormal iron and copper metabolism in autism. The membrane phospholipids, the prime target of ROS, are also altered in autism. The levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are decreased, and phosphatidylserine (PS) levels are increased in the erythrocyte membrane of children with autism as compared to their unaffected siblings. Several studies have suggested alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in autism. Additionally, altered glutathione levels and homocysteine/methionine metabolism, increased inflammation, excitotoxicity, as well as mitochondrial and immune dysfunction have been suggested in autism. Furthermore, environmental and genetic factors may increase vulnerability to oxidative stress in autism. Taken together, these studies suggest increased oxidative stress in autism that may contribute to the development of this disease. A mechanism linking oxidative stress with membrane lipid abnormalities, inflammation, aberrant immune response, impaired energy metabolism and excitotoxicity, leading to clinical symptoms and pathogenesis of autism is proposed

 

 

 

DTP

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Absence of antibodies to HTLV-III in health workers after hepatitis B vaccination. “A proportion of the plasma for the triply inactivated, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine produced in the United States is obtained from homosexual men. Because homosexual men are a high-risk group for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), concern has emerged that the vaccine could […]